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The Trend And Prospect Of Optical Fiber Communication Technology Apr 14, 2017

At present, there are several development hotspots in the field of optical communication, i. e. Ultra high speed transmission system, ultra-capacity WDM system, optical transmission networking technology, new generation of optical fiber, IPoverOptical and optical access network technology.
(1) Development of ultra-high speed system
At present, the 10Gbps system has started a large number of equipment network, mainly in North America, in Europe, Japan and Australia has also started a large number of applications. However, the 10Gbps system for optical fiber optic cable Polarization mode dispersion is sensitive, and the cable has been laid not necessarily to meet the opening and use of the 10Gbps system requirements, the need for practical testing, verification before the installation of the Open. Its more realistic way out is to turn to the reuse of light. There are many kinds of methods, but only wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has entered a large-scale commercial stage, while other methods are still in the experimental research stage.
(ii) Evolution to ultra-capacity WDM systems
The potential of the Power time division multiplexing system has been exhausted, however, the 200nm usable bandwidth resources of optical fibers are only less than 1%, and 99% of the resources are yet to be explored. If multiple transmit wavelengths are appropriately staggered by the light source signal at the same time in the first-level optical fiber, it can greatly increase the information transmission capacity of the fiber, which is the Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) basic thinking. Based on the great benefits of WDM applications and the major breakthroughs in technology and market drive, Wavelength division multiplexing system has been developed rapidly. Currently, the world's actual laying of WDM systems has exceeded 3000, and the utility system has reached 320Gbps (2x16x10Gbps), the United States Lucent Company has announced the introduction of 80 wavelength of WDM systems, its total capacity can reach 200Gbps (80x2.5Gbps) or 400Gbps (40x10Gbps). The highest level of the lab has reached 2.6Tbps (13x20Gbps). It is anticipated that the capacity of the utility system can reach 1Tbps levels in the near future.
(iii) Realization of optical networking
The practical technology of wavelength division multiplexing system, despite its enormous transmission capacity, is basically a point-to-point communication system, and its flexibility and reliability are not satisfactory. If the light on the road can also achieve a similar SDH in the circuit of the interpolation and cross-linking functions, will undoubtedly increase the power of the new layer. Based on this basic idea, optical networking can achieve both the ultra-capacity optical network and network scalability, reconfiguration, transparency, and the increasing number of nodes and the volume of the network, the interconnection of any system and the different formats of signals.
Because of the potential enormous advantages of optical networking, the United States and Europe, such as the developed countries have invested a lot of manpower, material and financial resources to advance research, especially the U. S. Department of Defense Institute of Advance (DARPA) funded a series of optical networking projects. Optical networking has become a new upsurge of optical communication after SDH interconnection. Building a maximum transparent, the highly flexible and ultra large capacity of the national backbone Optical Network can not only provide a solid physical foundation for the future National Information Infrastructure (NJJ), but also to our country's information industry and the economic takeoff of the next century, as well as the national security has a very important strategic significance.
(iv) Developing new generations of optical fibers
The traditional G.652 single-mode fiber has exposed the weakness in adapting to the development needs of the ultra high speed long-distance transmission network, and developing new optical fibers has become an important part of developing the next Generation network infrastructure. At present, in order to adapt to the different development needs of the trunk network and Metro network, two different kinds of new optical fibers, non-zero color astigmatism (G.655 fiber) and water-free absorption peak fiber (Quan Bo fiber) have emerged. Among them, the full-wave fiber will be the focus of future development, is also the focus of research now. In the long run, BPON technology will be the future development direction of broadband access technology, but from the current technology development, cost and application needs of the actual situation, it is widely used in the realization of telecommunications access network, the ultimate goal will have a long development process.
(v) IPoverSDH and IpoverOptical
The data business based on LP is the main impetus of the development of information industry in the world, so it can effectively support the JP business has become a symbol of the long-term technical life of new technology. At present, ATM and SDH can support LP, called IPoverATM and IPoverSDH respectively. But in the long run, when the amount of IP business grows, it needs more than 2. 4 gigabit per second link capacity, it is possible to eventually eliminate the middle of the SDH layer, IP directly on the light road, the formation of a very simple unified IP network structure (IPoverOptical). Three IP transmission technologies will play their historic role in different periods of telecommunication network and different parts of the network. But from the perspective of the future. IPoverOptical will be the most long-term vitality. In particular, as IP business becomes the dominant business of the network, the ideal transmission technology for JP Business will become the leading transfer technology of the future network, especially backbone network.
(vi) To solve the bottleneck of the network means a optical access network
In recent years, the core of the network has undergone tremendous changes, whether in exchange, or transmission has been updated several generations. Soon, this part of the network will become a fully digitized, software-dominated and controlled, highly integrated and intelligent network, on the other hand, the existing access network is still dominated by twisted pairs of copper wire (more than 90%%), primitive backward analog system. There is a tremendous contrast in the technology, restricting the further development of the whole network. In order to solve this problem fundamentally, we must vigorously develop the optical access network technology. Because the optical access network has the following advantages: (1) Reduce maintenance and management costs and failure rate; (2) Coordinate with local network structure, reduce node, enlarge coverage, (3) utilize fiber optics to bring the benefits of full use; (4) Build transparent optical network to meet the multimedia era.